The great majority of Siberia's population is made up of Russians and Ukrainians.
Non-Russian groups include Turkic-speaking nationalities in the Altay Republic, the Khakass Republic, the Tuva Republic, and the Kemerovo Region; Buryat-Mongols in the Buryat Republic, in the Agin-Buryat Autonomous Area, and in the Ust-Ordyn-Buryat Autonomous Area; Finno-Ugric Ostyaks (Khant) and Voguls (Mansi) in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area; Nenets (Samoyedes) in the Taimyr Peninsula and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area; and Tungus Evenki in the Evenki Autonomous Area.
The largely nomadic Mongol and Turkic herders of Southern Siberia mostly settled down to agriculture under the Soviet government. The indigenous peoples of Central and Northern Siberia remain mostly hunters and fishermen.
The chief non-Christian religions are Islam and Tibetan Buddhism in the south, and forms of shamanism elsewhere.