Abdication and death
When riots broke out in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) on March 8, 1917, Nicholas instructed the city commandant to take firm measures and sent troops to restore order. It was too late. The government resigned, and the Duma, supported by the army, called on the emperor to abdicate.
At Pskov on March 15, with fatalistic composure, Nicholas renounced the throne-not, as he had originally intended, in favour of his son, Alexis, but in favour of his brother Michael, who refused the crown.
Nicholas was detained at Tsarskoye Selo by Prince Lvov's provisional government. It was planned that he and his family would be sent to England; but instead, mainly because of the opposition of the Petrograd Soviet, the revolutionary Workers' and Soldiers' Council, they were removed to Tobolsk in Western Siberia. This step sealed their doom. In April 1918 they were taken to Yekaterinburg in the Urals.
When anti-Bolshevik "White" Russian forces approached the area, the local authorities were ordered to prevent a rescue; and on the night of July 16/17 the prisoners were all slaughtered in the cellar of the house where they had been confined. The bodies were burned, cast into an abandoned mine shaft, and then hastily buried elsewhere.
A team of Russian scientists located the remains in 1976 but kept the discovery secret until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By 1994 genetic analyses had positively identified the remains as those of Nicholas, Alexandra, three of their daughters (probably Anastasia, Tatiana, and Olga), and four servants.
However, the scientists did not find the skeletons of Alexis and of another daughter (probably Maria). The remains were given a state funeral on July 17, 1998, and reburied in St. Petersburg in the crypt of the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul.
On August 20, 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church canonised the emperor and his family, designating them "passion bearers" (the lowest rank of sainthood) because of the piety they had shown during their final days.
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